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Microscopic examination shows extensive tissue necrosis with dissolution of the cells. The syndrome usually occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and indicates a poor prognosis. The responsible bacteria originate from oral flora, and a variety of aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms have been implicated. Bowel preparation with dietary restriction and laxatives is recommended in a similar fashion to colonoscopy. It is the most common cause of suppurative infections of the skin, joints and bones and is a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Therapeutic termination is not required and pregnancy per se does not worsen outcome. Destruction of follicles allows the release of colloid, which elicits a conspicuous granulomatous reaction. Laboratory tests will include a full blood count to look for anaemia or a leucocytosis, urea and electrolytes, liver function tests, a C-reactive protein level, and an amylase level to exclude a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Marrow infiltration with leukemic cells, metastatic cancer, bone marrow failure in patients with aplastic anemia, radiotherapy or chemotherapy produce pancytopenia, including thrombocytopenia. In untreated cases thrombosis of large arteries and veins is common, especially in the legs, heart, intestine and kidneys. A somatotroph adenoma that arises in a child or adolescent before the epiphyses close results in gigantism. The inflammatory mediators attract and activate neutrophils and monocytes and stimulate mesangial and endothelial cell proliferation. Women of reproductive age not using reliable contraception should therefore take efavirenz. As a result of this metabolic defect, galactose and its metabolites accumulate in the liver and other organs. This consists of enlarged, rim-enhancing, necrotic mesenteric lymph nodes in association with an ulcerative jejunoileitis, predominantly affecting the jejunum. Initially, there is symmetric myelin and axonal loss at the thoracic level of the spinal cord. The severe imbalance of globin chain synthesis results in ineffective erythropoiesis and a severe microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Severe trauma, especially if accompanied by shock, prolonged sepsis and incapacitation from many debilitating chronic diseases, predisposes to development of acute hemorrhagic gastritis. Radiating from it are one-cell-thick plates of hepatocytes, which extend to the edge of the lobule, where they are continuous with plates of other lobules. Itching is the main symptom, usually starting about a month after the mites were picked up. Pregnancy will profoundly modify expression of preexisting skin disease, and there are dermatoses that are specific to pregnancy. The above processes may disrupt the barrier properties of the endothelium, or the vessels formed in neoplasms may be defective from their inception. Luminal B tumors are usually higher grade than luminal A tumors, exhibit higher proliferative indices and have a poorer prognosis. After the dietary restrictions previously described and senna or bisacodyl tablets on the afternoon before examination, a litre of isotonic osmotic laxative (commonly magnesium citrate) is drunk followed by other clear fluids. Myocardial amyloid deposits cause restrictive cardiomyopathy, in which diastolic dysfunction is often associated with well-preserved systolic function. These symptoms may last for up to an hour and respond similarly to sublingual nitrates. Death of nerve cells and reactive astrocytosis occur in the central nervous system. Remaining glands are often oriented parallel to the surface, and the stroma contains abundant collagen. In either case regional is preferable to general anaesthesia, as positive pressure ventilation reduces preload.

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Important points to explore include any prior history of bleeding; the exact nature of the bleeding, specifically the colour of the blood (bright red or altered), whether the blood is mixed with or separate from the stool, duration, and relationship to defecation; and any associated change in bowel habit or mucus discharge. The key elements of preconception counselling and assessment are shown in Table 14. In this case, maternal carbimazole treatment is required, the dose of which is titrated to the fetal heart rate. Characteristically, the tumor is solid, with polygonal, granular cells separated by a distinctly vascular stroma. Anemias Are Classified by Morphology or Pathophysiology the morphologic classification of anemia is based on erythrocyte appearance, as determined by automated blood counters and microscopic evaluation of a blood smear. For women with active perianal disease there is a risk of perineal trauma, and caesarean section should be considered. Muscle tissue from these patients shows necrosis of muscle fibers, regenerative activity, progressive fibrosis, infiltration of the muscle with fatty tissue and little or no inflammation. Drinking continues up to the time of the procedure to avoid solidification in the proximal colon, which can result in adherent residue that is difficult to flush or aspirate. Antenatal monitoring for congenital heart block should be undertaken in those women who have tested positive. Characteristically, lymphoid cells infiltrate between the wall of the central vein and the liver cell plates, an appearance termed central phlebitis. Women who are diagnosed with venous thromboembolism post-partum need to continue treatment for a minimum of three months. In contrast to serous and mucinous neoplasms, most endometrioid tumors are malignant, and some include areas of squamous differentiation. Megaloblastic anaemia due to poor dietary folate intake is prevented by 300 g daily, but if the folate deficiency is due to malabsorption it will need to be given parenterally. Depending on the stage of the disease, lymphoid infiltrates, predominantly T cells, of varying density are encountered. In addition to viruses, other microorganisms and parasites that gain access to the bloodstream can infect the heart. Amyloidosis the heart is affected in most forms of generalized amyloidosis (see Chapter 23). In a patient with significant bleeding, it is essential that good intravenous access is established, even in the stable patient. However, they should be considered in women with unexplained, severe symptoms of weight loss, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, or rectal bleeding. Although the tumor occurs in adolescents, most arise in adults, more commonly in women. Men with Klinefelter syndrome have a 60-fold higher risk than normal (see Chapter 6). Alternatively, it may have a direct toxic effect on these cells through the interaction of protofibrils and cell membranes. Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Like neurons in the rest of the nervous system, those in the retina are extremely susceptible to hypoxia. In most cases, the acute illness subsides within a week, but persistent pain, fever, leukocytosis and shaking chills indicate progression of acute cholecystitis and the need for cholecystectomy. The lesion slowly assumes a more mature granulomatous appearance, with epithelioid macrophages, Langhans giant cells, plasma cells and lymphocytes. In uncomplicated cases tinea is usually treated with topical antifungals; in pregnancy, clotrimazole and miconazole are preferred. Other specific organisms include Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and occasionally herpes simplex type 2.

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Early parenchymal changes are confined to the papillae and inner medulla and consist of focal thickening of tubular and capillary basement membranes, interstitial fibrosis and focal coagulative necrosis. Delivery management and the timing of delivery is made according to maternal well-being, the degree of glycaemic control, the presence of diabetic complications, growth of the fetus, evidence of uteroplacental insufficiency, and the results of fetal surveillance. Less prominent subendothelial immune complexes are associated with endothelial cell proliferation and are related to increased capillary permeability and narrowing of the lumen. By contrast, admission during the antenatal period is almost always as a result of a nonobstetric condition. The intraocular pressure is normal between attacks, but after many episodes, adhesions form between the iris and the trabecular meshwork as well as the cornea (peripheral anterior synechiae) and accentuate the block to the outflow of aqueous humor. Many chronic alcoholics have cerebral atrophy of uncertain cause and for which the relative roles of alcohol toxicity, malnutrition and other factors are not defined. The cysts are initially lined by a flat to cuboidal epithelium, but hyperplastic and neoplastic proliferation may develop. There is little inflammation within either the fibrous septa or the parenchymal nodules. For patients on clopidogrel or dipyridamole, the risk and benefits of continuing should be discussed with the patient and the appropriate specialist. In most patients, these autoantibodies are of the IgG class, although IgM antiplatelet antibodies occasionally occur. Fluid secreted into the pleural space from the parietal pleura is absorbed by the visceral pleura. Osteitis fibrosa cystica: As primary hyperparathyroidism progresses and hemorrhage continues, cystic degeneration ultimately occurs. As the bony ends expand, a zone of cartilage is trapped between the end of the bone and the diaphysis. Central myelin is made by oligodendrocytes, whereas peripheral myelin is synthesized by Schwann cells. The eruption typically begins around the umbilicus and spreads to the whole trunk, limbs, hands, and feet, including the palms and soles, and rarely the face. Breast cancer occurs four to five times more frequently in Western industrialized countries than in less developed areas. In addition to acute intestinal obstruction, intussusception compresses the blood supply to the intussusceptum, which may become infarcted. Mural scarring and stricture formation may be seen in cases of chronic ischaemic colitis. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows granular deposition of immunoglobulins and complement in glomerular capillary loops and mesangium. In addition to recurrent bacterial respiratory tract infections, patients have a wide range of clinical manifestations: autoimmune diseases Clinical presentation occurs after the age of 3 months (once maternal IgG is catabolized) and is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and particularly affect the respiratory and nervous system. Increased levels of plasma factors involved in thrombosis or the inhibition of thrombolysis, such as fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, homocysteine and decreased fibrinolytic activity, contribute to the risk of myocardial infarction. It can be primary or secondary (in association with autoimmune disorders, systemic lupus erythematosus, or rheumatoid arthritis, viral infections, drugs). Exacerbations of IgA nephropathy are often initiated by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. The genetics of dysplastic nevi are not completely understood, and contributions from multiple genes are likely. Complete heart block causes bradycardia which can be detected on auscultation, but lesser degrees of heart block require Doppler echocardiography. The best-studied situation associated with the induction of asthma is that of inhaled allergens. Populations at high risk for this tumor show an elevated prevalence of childhood H. This potential provides an opportunity for targeted prevention strategies to curb the current rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The identification of maternal infection warrants referral to a genitourinary medicine clinic, with contact tracing for treatment of sexual partners. Rarely, the clinical course is aggressive and indistinguishable from that of a malignant neoplasm. The immunosuppressed patient who is suffering with an acute abdominal pathology can present atypically, with occult symptoms and signs.

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Such biopsies have been shown to be very representative of the upper jejunal mucosa. The sinusoids are dilated, and the central-to-midzonal hepatocytes show pressure atrophy. This autoimmune disorder features (1) arterial and venous thrombosis, (2) spontaneous abortions and (3) immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or anemia. A peptic ulcer greater than 2 cm in size and hypotension are both risk factors for rebleeding. Active inflammation of the valves may eventually lead to chronic valvular stenosis or insufficiency. The inflammation penetrates the limiting plate and surrounds groups of hepatocytes at the border of the portal tract. Alveolar macrophages digest the remnants of hyaline membranes and other cellular debris. Surgical termination of pregnancy is performed by suction, or dilatation and evacuation at more advanced gestations up to 24 weeks. We counsel against subsequent pregnancy in women whose left ventricular function has not recovered and offer termination of unplanned pregnancy. The blisters develop in response to minor trauma, such as merely rubbing the skin, but heal without scarring (thus the term "simplex"). Immune-mediated enteritis Coeliac disease Coeliac disease is a gluten-related, immune-mediated enteropathy occurring in susceptible individuals. Skin lesions and involvement of visceral organs and the hematopoietic system are characteristic. The malady is also occasionally seen in other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Axons are retained, a few oligodendrocytes are seen and the lesion is infiltrated by macrophages. During this phase, the stomach contracts and the pylorus opens fully, allowing residual gastric and smallbowel contents to be flushed into the colon. One of the greatest challenges for clinicians caring for pregnant women is to provide sufficient reassurance that most medications are safe in pregnancy. Because bleeding in an older woman may be due to endometrial cancer, this sign must be thoroughly evaluated. Bladder cancer shows significant geographic and gender differences throughout the world. In fact, in populations in whom alcoholism is not a factor, gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. In the adult male, exogenous testosterone does not induce hyperplastic change and even does not stimulate atrophic glands. Anthrax spores are highly resistant to heat and drying, and when inhaled, they are transported to mediastinal lymph nodes. The most common morphologic characteristics in the infl ammatory myopathies are (1) the presence of inflammatory cells, (2) necrosis and phagocytosis of muscle fibers, (3) a mixture of regenerating and atrophic fibers and (4) fibrosis. Other immunosuppressive agents have also been used, including azathioprine and plasmapheresis, but the numbers treated do not allow firm conclusions regarding efficacy. Whether corticosteroids (prednisone >15 mg/day or equivalent) precipitate renal crisis remains contentious. Cardiac clinical features of normal pregnancy Fatigue, dizziness, palpitation, oedema, dyspnoea, and reduced exercise tolerance may occur in a normal pregnancy. Ulcers are covered by a black crust, under which lesions progress to erode cartilage and bone, causing defects in the nasal septum, hard palate and nasopharynx. In addition to the obliteration of blood vessels in the lung, these disorders also lead to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction, which reduces the effective cross-sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed without destroying the vessels. A typical adenoma is encapsulated, firm, yellow and slightly lobulated, measuring about 4 cm in diameter. Because osteoclast function is arrested, osteopetrosis is characterized by block-like, radiodense bones-hence the term marble bone disease. The disorder, originally described in the bladder, has since been seen in numerous other sites, both within and outside the urinary tract.

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Angina pectoris, secondary to slowing of coronary artery blood flow, and intermittent claudication caused by sluggish peripheral blood flow in the lower extremities may be observed. When delivery is planned, either by elective caesarean section or induction of labour, low-molecular-weight heparin should be discontinued 24 hours prior to planned delivery. Treatment should be initiated immediately on diagnosis: delay increases mortality. The effect of pregnancy on maternal glycaemic control ceases very quickly post-partum, hence women with pre-existing diabetes taking insulin should immediately revert to their pre-pregnancy regimen after birth, but with a lower insulin dose. The endoscopic positioning of a nasojejunal feeding tube, beyond the duodenojejunal flexure, is now becoming a common alternative to intravenous feeding in patients with complicated pancreatitis. They have numerous processes that extend through bony canals, called canaliculi, and communicate with those from other osteocytes The osteocytes may be the bone cells that recognize and respond to mechanical forces and are also important regulators of bone remodeling. Tophaceous gout eventually appears in the untreated patient in the form of tophi in the cartilage, synovial membranes, tendons and soft tissues. It conducts dilute bile from the hepatic duct into the gallbladder, where it is concentrated and subsequently discharged into the common bile duct. Children who survive the neonatal period have a varying onset and rate of progression of renal insufficiency, as well as hepatic fibrosis with portal hypertension. The pus flows between the periosteum and the cortex, isolating more bone from its blood supply, and it may even invade the joint. A wide range of cataracts are inherited, and some of them are associated with other ocular or systemic abnormalities. Outcome of pregnancies complicated by systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Overt nephritis resolves after several weeks, although hematuria and especially proteinuria may persist for several months. In addition to microcytosis and hypochromia, blood smears demonstrate striking anisopoikilocytosis (uneven cell size and shape), with target cells, basophilic stippling and circulating normoblasts (especially after splenectomy). Platelet aggregation predisposes patients to arterial and venous thromboembolic events that may be lethal. Characteristic changes in lymph nodes, especially epitrochlear nodes, include a thickened capsule, follicular hyperplasia, increased plasma cells and macrophages and luetic vasculitis. Many hepatocytes are arranged around a central space, and bile plugs fill many of these pseudoacini. The disease is more common in men than women and occurs twice as frequently in blacks than in whites. This enhances the visualization and diagnosis of otherwise poorly identifiable lesions. During middle age, exophthalmos no longer correlates well with the state of thyroid function. It is joined by the down-growing membranous septum, thereby separating right and left ventricles. Women with lesions that are resistant to dopamine agonists or who are intolerant should be counselled regarding the benefits of surgery prior to pregnancy. Coronal section of the enlarged thyroid gland shows numerous irregular nodules, some with cystic degeneration and old hemorrhage. In the United States, 30 to 40 cases of plague occur annually, mostly in the four corners region of the Southwest and south-central California. These lesions enlarge at the periphery, hence the term radial, but only rarely metastasize. Primary osteoporosis, by far the more common variety, is of uncertain origin and occurs principally in postmenopausal women (type 1) and elderly persons of both sexes (type 2). Neoplastic Lesions Hepatic adenomas are uncommon benign tumors that arise after the use of oral contraceptives and (uncommonly) of anabolic steroids. Not surprisingly, alcoholism is the most common condition predisposing to lung abscess. However, for most women with inactive disease there is no contraindication to vaginal delivery, and caesarean section should be performed only for obstetric reasons.

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The fundamental compensatory mechanism is the Frank-Starling mechanism: the cardiac stroke volume is a function of diastolic fiber length and, within certain limits, a normal heart will pump whatever volume is brought to it by the venous circulation. Patients with disseminated tumors are given chemotherapy and sometimes irradiation. With the advent of biologics, there has been a surge of women with rheumatoid arthritis now attempting pregnancy. This results in chronic myocarditis, in which the heart displays extensive interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophied myofibers and focal lymphocytic inflammation. Decreased production of lymphocytes is seen in (1) congenital and acquired immunodeficiency syndromes and some lymphomas The term "variant lymphocytes" covers atypical lymphocytes and large granular lymphocytes. These are delimited by connective tissue and contain degraded blood, debris of necrotic pancreatic tissue and fluid rich in pancreatic enzymes. Infection with Giardia lamblia, salmonella, Entamoeba histolytica, and cytomegalovirus have also been described Chronic intestinal inflammation resembling inflammatory bowel disease may occur. This drug causes a prompt decrease in uricosemia and uricosuria and is used in people with renal insufficiency or those who are resistant to other uricosuric drugs. The mechanisms by which smoking has been proposed to damage the periodontium include alterations in the vasculature of the periodontal tissues in smokers, reduced neutrophil transmigration across the periodontal microvasculature, suppression of neutrophil chemokinesis, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis. Some lipomas have no cytogenetic changes and may represent localized adipocyte hyperplasia. They are common in pregnancy, presumably because of the increased abdominal pressure. Courvoisier sign is an acute, painless gallbladder dilation accompanied by jaundice, as a result of common bile duct obstruction by tumor. Elevated serum levels of amylase and lipase within 24 to 72 hours are diagnostic of acute pancreatitis. Immunologic Inflammatory Disorders Felty syndrome Lupus erythematosus Sarcoidosis Amyloidosis Thyroiditis Hemolytic Anemias Immune Thrombocytopenia Splenic Vein Hypertension Cirrhosis Splenic or portal vein thrombosis or stenosis Right-sided cardiac failure Thymus Theories underlying the historical categorization of the thymus as an endocrine organ have long been discredited. By contrast, chronic liver diseases, such as chronic viral hepatitis or cirrhosis, may lead to an insidious onset of hepatic failure. Diagnosis is often made in the second and third trimesters, and treatment depends on the severity of the aplasia. Microscopically, the cells resemble the stroma of the normal ovarian cortex, appearing as welldifferentiated spindle cells embedded in variable amounts of collagen. A tophus is an extracellular soft tissue deposit of urate crystals surrounded by foreign-body giant cells and an associated inflammatory response of mononuclear cells. Unilateral blurred vision lasting a few minutes (amaurosis fugax) occurs with small retinal emboli. Microscopically, bland spindle cells are arranged in an interlacing, whorled pattern in which multinuclear giant cells and foamy macrophages may be seen. Bone Cells Maintain the Structure of Bone There are four types of cells in bone tissue, each of which has specific functions related to the formation, resorption and remodeling of bone. The infection principally affects boys aged 5 to 15 years, but it is occasionally seen in older age groups as well. Chancres quickly erode to characteristic painless ulcers that heal without scarring. The endothelium also plays an active role in the control of thrombosis (Table 10-2). These adenomas tend to be intermediate in distribution and size between the tubular and villous forms, and one fourth to one third are larger than 2 cm across. Immunity is present in up to 75% of women; less in higher socioeconomic classes or in developing countries. The principles of managing asthma during pregnancy are not different from those in nongravid women, and management goals focus on avoidance of triggers, controlling symptoms, optimizing pulmonary function, and preventing and appropriately treating exacerbations. Counselling and support are essential to optimize adherence and ensure this is maintained during pregnancy, breastfeeding, and beyond. To compensate for loss of marrow, extramedullary hematopoiesis occurs in the liver, spleen and lymph node.

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Infection rates may also be influenced by the community prevalence of streptococcal infection, patterns of antibiotic usage and outbreaks of influenza. Highgrade colorectal epithelial dysplasia reflects a significant risk for the development of colorectal cancer, and when identified in a biopsy, it is a strong indication for colectomy. They present as rapidly growing breast masses and are well circumscribed or lobulated on mammography. Nocturnal regurgitation of large amounts of fluid stored in the diverticulum during the day is typical. The organisms reproduce within these cells, killing them in the process and produce a necrotizing vasculitis. Symptoms usually are seen in childhood, and almost all patients have pathologic fractures, limb deformities or limb-length discrepancies. The most common symptoms are a vaginal discharge and bleeding during coitus, but advanced cancers may cause pelvic or abdominal pain and edema of the legs. Joint disease is usually mild and only slowly progressive, although a mutilating form is occasionally encountered. Gross surgical specimen consisting of excised meningioma together with cranial bone and dura. Women in areas of high transmission with pre-existing immunity do not have immunity to pregnancy-specific variant surface antigens with their first pregnancy. Venous flow from spleen from gastroesophageal varices, ascites, splenomegaly and renal and pulmonary disease The trigger is likely related to factors that incite inflammation, such as alcoholic hepatitis or viral hepatitis. They are classified into three distinct groups identified by their differential expression of transcription factors, cytokine production, and cell surface markers. A thrombus is an aggregate of coagulated blood that contains platelets, fibrin, leukocytes and red blood cells. There are usually clefts in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve and the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, which may be accompanied by an associated defect in the adjacent interventricular septum. Fetal growth restriction is common and likely due to a combination of impaired placental perfusion as a result of vascular narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its branches and hypertension. There is also the finding of a high concordance rate in monozygotic (but not dizygotic) twins. However, large numbers of endoscopies, particularly in apprehensive or sick inpatients and those needing more complex procedures, are still performed under intravenous sedation. Molecular classification of the dementias and other neurodegenerative diseases now recognizes disorders based on the proteins that undergo fibrillogenesis. Pineocytoma: this benign tumor is a solid, wellcircumscribed mass that replaces the pineal body. T-cell clones in heart tissue react with the bacterial M5 protein and cardiac myosin. Microscopically, edema and hemorrhage in the wall are striking, with accompanying acute and chronic inflammation. Clinical symptoms most often occur in persons who carry unusually large numbers of worms or who are immunocompromised. In Western countries, liver disease due to alcohol and hepatitis are the principal causes of portal hypertension, which leads to oesophageal varices; variceal bleeding may rarely affect the stomach and the remaining Table 15. In infants and, to a lesser extent, in adults, these may lead to pneumatoceles (thin-walled cystic spaces lined primarily by respiratory tissue), which develop when an abscess breaks into an airway. As a result, proper diagnosis requires both a detailed clinical history and a battery of immunohistochemical and genetic tests. Markers of cell proliferation, such as Ki-67, increase in cells of the vertical growth phase. Chemotactic factors, including leukotriene B4 as well as neutrophil and eosinophil chemotactic factors, attract neutrophils, eosinophils and platelets to the bronchial wall. Although neuropeptides are readily demonstrated in the tumor cells, most are endocrinologically silent. The malignant acini have lost their basal cells and no longer grow in a lobular fashion. The male incidence is twice that of the female in all age groups except older people, where they are similar.


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It is most common in the ileum, where it is seen as (1) a fungating mass that projects into the lumen, (2) an elevated ulcerated lesion, (3) a diffuse segmental thickening of the bowel wall or (4) plaquelike mucosal nodules. Awaiting spontaneous onset of labour is the norm, with induction indicated for the standard obstetric reasons, maternal cardiac decompensation, or for practical reasons, for example when the mother lives far from the intended site of delivery. Retinopathy, nephropathy, Risks to the fetus Although maternal glucose crosses the placental barrier, insulin does not and, consequently, increases in maternal glucose stimulate fetal insulin production and result in hyperplasia of fetal insulin Table 14. A history of change in bowel habit, weight loss, and pain are suggestive of colorectal cancer. There is a risk that, with increasing reliance on diagnostic tests, the lack of positive findings can lead to a breakdown in trust and the relationship between patient and clinician. When bleeding continues, haemostasis can be achieved by endoscopic, radiological, or surgical means. Women with pulmonary arterial hypertension or a Fontan circulation may not tolerate a bradycardiac response to cervical instrumentation. It attaches to the appropriate host cell and induces endocytosis, forming a vacuole. The specific nephritogenic streptococcal antigens have not been conclusively identified. The dry form is characterized by the layering of extracellular material beneath the pigment layer of the retina, leading to the formation of drusen (degraded material). In general, women with microadenomas should discontinue medical therapy in pregnancy and be assessed at each trimester. Early treatment with aciclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 h intravenously is recommended, and observational data suggest improved outcomes with aciclovir treatment. Cancellous bone contains many more bone cells per unit volume than does cortical bone. The disease is commonly associated with alcoholism and is seen most frequently in middle-aged men, although persons with diabetes and chronic pulmonary disease are also at increased risk. There have been unnecessary deaths when a physician has persisted in conservative management without involving a surgeon in management of suspected perforation. Current evidence suggests that the clinical outcome for pregnant patients is similar to that of those who are not pregnant. The obstetric patient presenting with acute onset of shortness of breath requires a careful assessment to exclude lifethreatening conditions detrimental to the mother or the fetus. Mesenteric lymph nodes draining affected segments of small bowel reveal similar microscopic changes. Those in advanced stages of dissemination are usually successfully treated with chemotherapy. Cerazette) may therefore benefit women who are suitable for progestogen-only oral contraceptives but have difficulty with compliance. Clinically, myotubular myopathy is characterized by marked neonatal hypotonia and respiratory failure at birth. The rare symptomatic or expanded lesions are treated with curettage and bone grafting. For unknown reasons, the incidence of acute pancreatitis has increased 10-fold in the past few decades. This interaction results in adhesion to endothelial cells in the microvasculature, especially glomerular capillaries, where the cells promote vascular inflammatory conditions such as glomerulonephritis, arteritis and venulitis. Parenchymal Injuries Parenchymal traumatic brain and spinal cord injury range in severity from (1) temporary loss of function with little or absent discernable structural damage in concussion, to (2) intermediate damage with hemorrhage and necrosis of the tissue in contusions or (3) profound disruption of structure and function in lacerations. At the extremes of age-newborn and senescence-clinical manifestations can be more variable. These casts are brightly eosinophilic and glassy (hyaline) and often have fractures and angular borders. These diseases are all inherited dominantly and present clinically from teenage to old age, though usually in mid-adult life. A distinguishing feature of infectious mononucleosis is a lymphocytosis with atypical lymphocytes. Thyroid and other endocrine cancers It is not uncommon to find thyroid nodules that require further investigation during pregnancy.